I have found a possible alternate explanation for the middle burst of light that appears when the pod enters the wall. The right wheel well of Boeing 767s contains a reserve of hydraulic fluid. This fluid may have ignited to produce the middle burst of light. This never justifies the mindless incompetence and pathological illiteracy of those who simply refused to read, but responded with insult and other nonsense.

Three Bright Dots

Talking Point 1: The South Tower plane had three engines. Boeing 767s have only two.

Talking Point 2: Optical illusions do not produce large bright dots when they penetrate walls.

Argument Summary: Freeze-frames at thirty frames a second of the 9/11 airplane hitting the World Trade Center South Tower are presented, from CNN's DVD America Remembers 2002 Edition. When the airplane hits the World Trade Center South Tower, three bright dots are produced as the airplane penetrates the wall. The three bright dots are the approximate equivalent of explosions of a full gasoline tank of a car, and defuse and blur in the following frames. The outer two are produced by the jet engines. The middle one is produced by a feature appearing underside right (the "pod").

Something, attached to the plane where the pod appears, produced the middle bright dot. Otherwise, the middle bright dot would never appear. Ordinary commercial airliners have nothing where the pod appears. Therefore, the plane was not an ordinary commercial airliner.

Detailed Discussion

The four photographs below are freeze-frames from a famous video clip of the airplane, ostensibly United Airlines Flight 175, hitting the South Tower during 9/11. I took the clip from CNN's DVD "America Remembers" — 2002 edition.

In this article, I consider the three bright dots that appear in the first two pictures below. The pictures both link to a larger version. I discuss what produced the three dots as the airplane penetrated the wall of the World Trade Center South Tower.

For reasons incomprehensible to me, readers often have trouble noticing the three bright dots — or at least recognizing them as the objects that I refer to — even though the three bright dots (along with the tail section of the airplane) are the brightest features in the picture. I think that it has something to do with the tail section — there are four bright objects, with imperfect shapes. Refering to three bright dots might be confusing. Therefore, I have taken the liberty of explicitly indicating the dots in the close-up of the plane, along with the tail section and the wing shapes on the wall of the building. I hope that readers will see the words "dot" and know what I'm talking about.

The following two pictures appear three frames earlier in the video than the previous pictures. The wings and the jet engines have not yet penetrated the wall. Again, I inserted words in the close-up to indicate the jet engines, tail section, and wings of the airplane.

The two outer dots match the positions of the jet engines under the wing. If you step through the freeze-frames, you can verify that the jet engines produce the outer two bright dots:

The freeze-frames are one-thirtieth of a second apart. If the plane is flying 450 miles per hour (660 feet per second), that means that the plane travels 22 feet every frame.

The middle bright dot is not equally spaced between the two outer dots. The dot is instead located underneath the right side of the airplane, where the right wing meets the fuselage.

I present two photos of Boeing 767 aircraft here. A Boeing 767 has two jet engines, one under each wing. No other jet engines exist on a Boeing 767, and nothing is attached underneath where the middle bright dot is. Both sides have a swell where the wings attach.

Jet engines have a feature absent in everything else on ordinary commercial airliners: jet fuel is injected into the engines, ignited, and sent out their tails. This is most likely the unique feature that enables the jet engines to produce their bright dots instantaneously. Fuel is already there to burn upon impact in the jet engines, while fuel in the tanks takes a little time (a small fraction of a second, but several frames in the video) to leak and then burn. In other words, the bright dots are most likely jet-fuel explosions. They are rather large, comparable perhaps to the explosion of a full gasoline tank of fuel in a car.

What produced the middle bright dot? Something that had fuel immediately available to burn, most likely. Something similar to a jet engine, possibly a missile.

Ordinary Boeing 767s have nothing where the middle bright dot appears. However, the airplane that hit the South Tower exhibits something at that position. The left photograph was lifted from the New York Metro site. The right photograph is one of my freeze-frames (Frame 22). The object is on the underside of the airplane, where the right wing attaches to the fuselage.

Like all of the other 9/11 researchers (for example here and here), I call that object or image the "pod" without specifying what it really is. It is either an optical illusion or an unknown object that commercial airliners don't have. The pod's position matches the middle bright dot on the airplane.

The pod and the jet engines all appear to have tiny dots in their tails. This makes it easier to follow the pod into the wall. The pod also appears to cast a shadow.

The pod is blurrier and vaguer than the jet engines, because the pod is up against the underside of the airplane and wing, whereas the jet engines have the South Tower wall as immediate background. One can still step through the freeze-frames and watch the pod as it enters the wall and forms the middle dot. By clicking on Next repeatedly in the individual freeze-frames, one can simulate an animation of the plane penetrating the wall. The first few frames are only sample freeze-frames, but starting at Frame 26 and ending at Frame 36, every frame is displayed.

Watch as the pod penetrates the wall and leaves behind the middle bright dot. Again, notice that the pod and the jet engines appear to have small white dots in their tail sections.

The freeze-frames are one-thirtieth of a second apart in time. If the plane flies 450 miles per hour, that corresponds to 22 feet per frame.

The timing of the middle bright dot is right for the pod. In Frame 32, the two outer dots appear but the middle dot is just beginning to form, while in Frame 33, the middle dot has fully formed. The tail end of the pod is ten or twenty feet behind the jet engines, so its dot should form a considerable fraction of a frame later — and it does.

Something physical has to exist where the pod is, because optical illusions do not produce bright dots when they penetrate walls. "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof." Something had to produce the middle bright dot, so the only extraordinary claim is "nothing's there."

It has been asserted that the pod is merely an optical illusion, that nothing is physically there. Some persons have so internalized that position, that they pretend not to see the pod at all. Those persons thereby preempt any discussion about whether the pod is real. If the pretense is conscious, those persons are dishonest to the point of treason.

The vast majority of critics of my claims disregard (or at least do not acknowledge) the principle feature of my argument: the pod must be real because it produced a bright dot when penetrating the wall. The vast majority of critics who jump on me do not mention, let alone attempt to refute, my claim that the pod produced a bright dot when it penetrated the wall. The remaining few critics tried to provide alternate explanations for the middle dot. Here, I rule out alternative causes of the three bright dots (or the middle dot) — forgetting for the moment that they were caused by objects penetrating the wall.

We must refuse to forget the primary fact: the three bright dots were produced by the jet engines and the pod. Nothing else produced a similar dot. The plane hitting the South Tower must have had something where the pod appears, something similar to a jet engine — possibly a missile. No commercial airliner has any kind of jet engine where the pod appears.

Conclusion: The plane hitting the South Tower was not an ordinary commercial airliner. The official story that hijacking terrorists took the US by surprise and flew United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower is false.

I also present a Hubble Space Telescope photograph, to show by comparison how tiny and obscure a feature might be unambiguously detected.
This is a photograph of a galaxy known as NGC 4603, about 108 million light-years away. Several Cepheid variable stars in that galaxy are indicated by boxes. These stars are seen because they vary in brightness with definite periods of oscillation. Even in the Hubble Telescope's raw data, each such star can take up only one pixel in the picture, and the star is not much brighter than the galaxy around it. Nevertheless, the presence and identification of such a star is unambiguous.

In fact, the detected Cepheid stars were used to determine the distance out to the galaxy.

By comparison, the three bright dots in the freeze-frames are clear and unmistakeable. The pod is much more visible as well.


The airplane hitting the South Tower was not an ordinary commercial airliner. If the plane was United Airlines Flight 175, it was especially prepared for this collision through the addition of the third jet or missile. Most likely, though, it was another aircraft such as a military plane.

The Freeze-Frames

Okay, let's step through freeze-frames, as the airplane approaches and crashes into the South Tower. Sample frames are provided only until the last few frames before the crash. Then every frame is produced. The frames are one-thirtieth (1/30) of a second apart -- thirty freeze frames per second. The reader may step through the frames one at a time, or may go to the CNN video or 911 in Plane Site to step through the video himself. Follow each frame as the plane approaches and penetrates the South Tower. Watch as each jet engine and the pod produce a large bright dot as they penetrate the wall.

The pod is just barely visible here, as the airplane approaches the South Tower.
The pod is plainly visible. Notice the shadow apparently cast by the pod, and the small white dot right at the tail of the pod.
The airplane begins to penetrate the South Tower.

The blood-red color on the wall at the nose of the airplane appears to be all that remains of the flash described in 911 in Plane Site.

In this frame, we see the last of the jet engines. The light at the tail of the pod appears to get brighter, althought it may be an optical illusion.
The jet engines have penetrated the wall. We may see the last of the pod, although the partially formed dot in the following frame might be its tail end.
The two outer dots have formed from the former jet engines. Half of the right wing has vanished, and the sunlight reflected has disappeared as well.

In the middle, we see either the last of the pod or the beginning of the middle bright dot. It is uncertain which. In my argument above, I have been treating it as the beginning of the middle bright dot.

Notice the consistant pattern: in the earlier pictures, the pod is behind the two jet engines. Here, the two outer bright dots have already formed while the middle bright dot is in the process of being formed.

Recall the little calculation. Using 450 mph (660 feet per second) as a nice number for the speed of the airplane. Every frame, the aircraft advances one-thirtieth (1/30) of 660 feet, or 22 feet.

The middle large bright dot has fully formed. Along with the tail of the airplane, the three dots are the brightest features of the picture.
The tail section, and the sunlight reflected from it, have vanished. Meanwhile, the three bright dots persist and blur. Other tiny dots form, but are nothing compared to the three large bright dots.

Freeze frames from the "Firemen Video" of the airplane hitting the North Tower also hint at the three-dot arrangement. The "Firemen Video" is the only video clip that I am aware of to show the plane hitting the North Tower. Although the video clip is too vague to pick out details easily, 911 in Plane Site has been able to tease out a few details, such as the flash just before the impact.

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